1. Installing Sub Assemblies
2. Inserting Component to sets
3. Fitting one part into another part
4. Bonding by Soldering
5. Joining with Screws or Pins
People are the most flexible & the most dexterous assemblers, but their performance is variable, difficult to document & hold to a standard. Fixed automation is efficient & uniform in performance, but it is too expensive for small production runs.
Assembly is the phase of production where the product first comes to life & can be tested for function. Assembly is also the phase where production directly interfaces with customer orders & warranty repairs. Thus assembly is more than putting parts together.
A programmable robot assembly system typically consists of one or more robot work stations & their associated grippers & parts presentation equipment. These stations may be linked in a variety of ways, including a conventional conveyor. Alternatively. each robot can simply pass the work over to the next robot.
Miniaturization & reliability also influence quality assurance. In particular, high placement accuracy, with precision better than 20 micrometer with 6 sigma, is a challenge in electronics assembly in the near future. Due to the requirements of electronics products, challenges in component packaging also include miniaturization & function integration. These requirements lead to new designs such as BGA, micro BGA, or micro FC, thinner packaging such as TSOP or TQFP, & higher pin count with smaller pitch.
Printed wiring assembly is a production discipline characterized by high productivity, high quality, & fast innovation cycles.
Robot placement systems are currently being used primarily to place so-called exotic THT (Through Hole Technology) components such as coils & plugs. The reason is that their assembly is not possible with pick-n-place machines. A complete robotic soldering system includes the robot, its control, the soldering equipment, & a plant material handling equipment that delivers electronic devices into & out of the work station on time. Depending on the selective soldering system used, the robot has different functions. Microwave soldering is also a selective soldering process characterized by partial heating & solder supply. The use of high energy in form of a focused xenon or halogen lamp is an example of selective non-contact reflow soldering. Soldering using laser beams is another non-contact heat source for selective soldering. Current systems use the radiation of Nd:YAG laser for soldering.